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Sodium,  11Na
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
General properties
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)22.98976928(2)
Sodium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
Atomic number (Z)11
Groupgroup 1 (alkali metals)
Periodperiod 3
Blocks-block
Element category  alkali metal
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPNa: Solid
Melting point370.944 K ​(97.794 °C, ​208.029 °F)
Boiling point1156.090 K ​(882.940 °C, ​1621.292 °F)
Density (near r.t.)0.968 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)0.927 g/cm3
Critical point2573 K, 35 MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion2.60 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization97.42 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity28.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−1, +1 (a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 0.93
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 495.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 4562 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6910.3 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 186 pm
Covalent radius166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius227 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of sodium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceNa: Primordial
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for sodium
Speed of sound thin rod3200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion71 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity142 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity47.7 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+16.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Young's modulus10 GPa
Shear modulus3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus6.3 GPa
Mohs hardness0.5
Brinell hardness0.69 MPa
CAS Number7440-23-5
History
Discovery and first isolationHumphry Davy (1807)
Main isotopes of sodium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
22Na trace 2.602 y β+ 22Ne
23Na 100% stable
24Na trace 14.96 h β 24Mg
| references
Sodium pellets in a container

Sodium (symbol Na, from the Latin name natrium) is the chemical element number 11 in the periodic table of elements. It follows that its nucleus includes 11 protons, and 11 electrons orbit around it (according to the simplified model known as "Niels Bohr atom"). Even if many isotopes can be artificially made, all decay in a short time. As a result, all sodium found in nature (mainly in sea water) has the composition 11Na23, meaning that the nucleus includes 12 neutrons. The atomic mass of sodium is 22.9898; if it is rounded, it would be 23. view more...



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